Non-Invasive Ventilation With Helmets for Acute Respiratory Distress Due to COVID-19

This Health Technology Update newsletter describes patient helmets, also known as “helmet masks,” and their potential use in COVID-19 infection control. These helmets are designed to reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission from infected patients to health care providers and other patients. The newsletter provides a background to the technology, target populations, cost and availability, […]

Ongoing Trials of Plasma-Based Therapies for the Treatment of COVID-19

This report provides information on ongoing randomized controlled trials of intravenous immune globulin and hyperimmune globulin that are being investigated for the management of COVID-19. It will be updated every month. Ongoing trials of convalescent plasma are addressed in separate CADTH reports Link to Report Ongoing Trials of Plasma-Based Therapies for the Treatment of COVID-19 […]

What You Should Know About Drug Treatments for COVID-19

CADTH created this handout, intended for the general public, explaining the risks of using unproven drug treatments for COVID-19. The handout also provides information on what to do if someone is experiencing COVID-19 symptoms, tips on how to assess the reliability of health information found on the internet, and a list of reliable websites that […]

Rapid Point-of-Care Antigen Testing for SARS-CoV-2 Infection

This newsletter explores recent developments in testing for COVID-19. Testing for COVID-19 infection is important to stopping spread of the virus. There is also a need for tests that can quickly provide results. Evidence related to rapid point-of-care antigen testing — such as current practice, availability in Canada, cost, and safety — are summarized in […]

Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems in Public Spaces

This report reviews evidence related to airflow transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the risk associated with the use of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. A targeted literature review along with a multidisciplinary expert panel discussion were the primary approaches to examine the evidence. More robust, published, peer-reviewed evidence is […]

Ongoing Trials for Drugs in the Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19

This report provides information on ongoing randomized controlled trials of drugs being investigated to treat or prevent COVID-19. It will be updated every two weeks. Ongoing trials of vaccines and plasma-based therapies are addressed in separate CADTH reports. Link to Report Ongoing Trials for Drugs in the Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19 (Updated September 16, […]

Enablers for Virtual Visits

The COVID-19 pandemic has forced the widespread use of virtual visits, demonstrating that care can be delivered effectively through virtual means. As the risk of transmission and exposure to the virus remain, and as patient demand for virtual access to health care providers is unlikely to abate over the immediate term and beyond, the health […]

Triage Tools and Management Algorithms for Colorectal Cancer Screening: Guidelines

CADTH conducted a Rapid Response Report to search for evidence-based guidelines regarding the use of stool-based screening tests, screening triage tools, or management algorithms for colorectal cancer screening. However, no relevant evidence-based guidelines were identified in these searches. Link to Report Triage Tools and Management Algorithms for Colorectal Cancer Screening: Guidelines

Tocilizumab for the Treatment and Prevention of COVID-19: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness

Tocilizumab (TCZ), a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody, used for severe rheumatoid arthritis and life-threatening cytochrome release syndrome, may be a potential treatment option for COVID-19 infection. Patients with severe COVID-19 infection showed an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines; hence, it was thought that blocking the receptor of these agents may reduce the inflammatory response to COVID-19. […]

CADTH Emerging Health Technology for COVID-19: Sarilumab

Sarilumab is an interleukin-6 receptor antagonist indicated, in Canada, for rheumatoid arthritis and has been identified as a potential option for treating COVID-19. Two published studies were identified in the CADTH Horizon Scan that evaluated the efficacy and safety of sarilumab for the treatment of COVID-19. Link to Report CADTH Emerging Health Technology for COVID-19: […]

Remdesivir: Evidence Review and Appraisal

CADTH conducted a Health Technology Review on remdesivir — an antiviral drug currently being used to treat COVID-19. Remdesivir was approved in Canada on July 27, 2020 to treat adults and adolescents with severe symptoms of COVID-19 who have pneumonia and require extra oxygen. Four randomized controlled trials were identified and included in the review. […]

Convalescent Plasma Therapy for the Treatment of COVID-19 : A Review of Clinical Effectiveness

Convalescent plasma (CP) therapy is an intervention where plasma is collected from recovered COVID-19 patients in the hope that the disease-specific antibodies could help the recipient recover from COVID-19. Evidence on the effectiveness of CP therapy for the treatment of COVID-19 is still in the early stages. This report summarizes the current evidence and it […]

Resumption of Routine Cancer Screening during the COVID-19 Pandemic : Guidelines

CADTH conducted a Rapid Response Report to search for evidence-based guidelines regarding resuming routine cancer screening during the COVID-19 pandemic. One evidence-based guideline from the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) Institute was identified. However, no evidence-based guidelines that were either broader in scope, or specific to other fields, were identified. Link to Report Resumption of Routine […]

What You Should Know About Dexamethasone for Treating COVID-19

This tool provides general information about the drug dexamethasone, its past uses, and new evidence for dexamethasone as a potential treatment for COVID-19. The results from the dexamethasone arm of the RECOVERY trial are provided, together with the current Canadian recommendations for its use in treating COVID-19. Link to Tool What You Should Know About […]

Lopinavir-Ritonavir for the Treatment and Prevention of COVID-19: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness

HIV medications lopinavir and ritonavir (LPVR), in combination, are currently being investigated as a proposed COVID-19 treatment. The potential mechanism of action of LPVR is that it may disrupt the replication and spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 — or SARS-CoV-2 — within the body. However, there is uncertainty around the clinical […]

Technologies to Address the Negative Effects of Social Isolation for Older Adults Living in Long-Term Care

CADTH conducted a limited literature search to identify a list of potential technologies that may be used to address the negative effects of social isolation on older adults living in long-term care. A list of technologies that encourage engagement and communication is identified; these include technologies for robotic companions and pets, physical activities and games, […]

CADTH Emerging Health Technology for COVID-19: Favipiravir

Favipiravir is an oral antiviral drug that has emerged as a potential treatment or prevention option for COVID-19. An international expert panel issued a weak recommendation for not using favipiravir in patients with non-severe or severe COVID-19 because of low-quality evidence. Favipiravir is not approved in Canada and is not currently accessible outside of clinical […]

Chloroquine or Hydroxychloroquine to Prevent or Treat COVID-19

This report reviews the current scientific evidence on the potential benefits and harms of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for the prevention or treatment of COVID-19. A total of four trials were identified — three treatment trials and one prevention trial. The evidence available at this time is limited in both quantity and quality, with some of […]

Ongoing Trials for Novel Vaccines in the Prevention of COVID-19

This report provides information on ongoing clinical trials of novel vaccines being investigated for the prevention of COVID-19. It is current as of August 10, 2020, and no further updates will be posted. A list of online tracking tools for up-to-date information on ongoing vaccine trials for COVID-19 is provided in Appendix 1 of this […]

Dexamethasone in the Treatment of Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19: A Critical Appraisal of the RECOVERY Study

The RECOVERY trial is a large, ongoing, multi-centre, open-label, randomized controlled trial investigating several treatments for patients hospitalized with COVID-19. In July 2020, the preliminary results were published comparing dexamethasone plus usual standard of care with usual standard of care alone. Dexamethasone reduced the 28-day mortality rate in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. The purpose of […]

Serological Tests for COVID-19

If accurate, antibody-based serology tests may provide information on who has COVID-19 or who has been infected. Health Canada is actively assessing these tests within the expedited access process. However, to date, the performance and role of these tests in clinical settings has not been completely demonstrated. Currently, evidence to confirm that individuals have immunity […]

Gabapentin, Phenobarbital, Diazepam, and Lorazepam for the Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines

During pandemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, it can be challenging to offer care to vulnerable populations, especially those experiencing alcohol withdrawal. CADTH conducted a Rapid Response on the clinical effectiveness of using gabapentin, phenobarbital, diazepam, or lorazepam to treat alcohol withdrawal. This report also searched for evidence-based guidelines for treating alcohol withdrawal in the […]

Virtual Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Respirator Disease or Post-Intensive Care Syndrome: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, many people are interested in whether health care interventions can be done virtually or remotely. CADTH conducted a Rapid Response regarding virtual pulmonary rehabilitation (programs to improve lung function) for patients with respiratory disease or post-intensive care syndrome (health problems individuals may experience after being in intensive care). […]

Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19

Patients hospitalized with COVID-19, particularly those in intensive care units, are at an increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). CADTH’s Horizon Scan identified seventeen studies reporting on the frequency of VTE in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. The Horizon Scan also summarized Canadian and International guidance regarding the dose and duration of pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis for VTE […]

Influenza Vaccination and Risk of Subsequent Non-Influenza Respiratory Viruses: Safety

This CADTH Rapid Response Report looks at evidence on the safety of influenza vaccination in terms of the risk of contracting subsequent non-influenza respiratory viruses. This information might help inform decisions on the administration of the seasonal flu vaccine during the COVID-19 pandemic. Three non-randomized studies were identified. Two found no association between the influenza […]

Health Technology Update, Issue 27

This issue of Health Technology Update features brief summaries of information on a range of technologies that aim to support the prevention, identification, and management of COVID-19 — from smartphone apps for contact tracing to self-collected sampling for diagnostic testing. These technologies were identified through the CADTH Horizon Scanning Service as topics of potential interest […]

Use of Contact Tracing Apps to Contain COVID-19

The urgency of limiting the spread of COVID-19 remains a significant challenge for many jurisdictions across Canada. The utilization of contact tracing apps is being explored as a public health tool in order to help prevent further spread of the disease by tracking those who have been confirmed or assessed as likely to be carriers […]

Methoxyflurane for Acute Pain: Clinical Effectiveness

CADTH conducted a Rapid Response report to search for evidence on the comparative clinical effectiveness of methoxyflurane versus inhaled nitrous oxide for acute pain, as well as the clinical effectiveness of methoxyflurane for acute pain in pre-hospital or emergency department settings. One systematic review was identified; however, it has not been critically appraised by CADTH. […]

Quick Start: Re-establishing Health Services in Indigenous Communities

These citations related to re-establishing health services in indigenous communities are intended to provide a preliminary quick start to more comprehensive searching or to help frame questions or issues. If you’d like to know more, please contact CADTH via our email address or our requests page. Link to Report Quick Start: Re-establishing Health Services in […]

Quick Start: Moral Distress in Health Care Workers

These citations related to moral distress in health care workers are intended to provide a preliminary quick start to more comprehensive searching or to help frame questions or issues. If you’d like to know more, please contact CADTH via our email address or our requests page Link to Report Quick Start: Moral Distress in Health […]

Quick Start: Laboratory Services and COVID-19

These citations related to laboratory services and COVID-19 are intended to provide a preliminary quick start to more comprehensive searching or to help frame questions or issues. If you’d like to know more, please contact CADTH via our email address or our requests page Link to Report Quick Start: Laboratory Services and COVID-19

Quick Start: Radiology Services and COVID-19

These citations related to radiology services and COVID-19 are intended to provide a preliminary quick start to more comprehensive searching or to help frame questions or issues. If you’d like to know more, please contact CADTH via our email address or our requests page. Link to Report Quick Start: Radiology Services and COVID-19

Quick Start: Pulmonary Auscultation Without Touching or Contamination

These citations related to pulmonary auscultation without touching or contamination are intended to provide a preliminary quick start to more comprehensive searching or to help frame questions or issues. If you’d like to know more, please contact CADTH via our email address or our requests page. Link to Report Quick Start: Pulmonary Auscultation Without Touching […]